By James S. Anderson
Biblical scholarship this present day is split among collectively particular recommendations of the emergence of monotheism: an early-monotheistic Yahwism paradigm and a native-pantheon paradigm.
This learn identifies 5 major levels on Israel's trip in the direction of monotheism. instead of figuring out no matter if Yahweh used to be initially a god of the Baal-type or of the El-type, this paintings shuns origins and focuses in its place at the first interval for which there are considerable resources, the Omride period. Non-biblical assets depict a considerably various state of affairs from the Baalism the Elijah cycle ascribes to King Achab. the newness of the current examine is to take this paradox heavily and establish the Omride dynasty because the first degree within the upward thrust of Yahweh because the major god of Israel. Why Jerusalem later painted the Omrides as anti-Yahweh idolaters is then defined because the have to distance itself from the near-by sanctuary of Bethel by means of assuming the Omride background with out admitting its northern Israelite origins. The contribution of the Priestly record and of Deutero-Isaiah in the course of the Persian period include the subsequent part, earlier than the stern Yahwism completed in Daniel 7 completes the emergence of biblical Yahwism as a very monotheistic religion.
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Additional info for Monotheism and Yahweh’s Appropriation of Baal
D. Mettinger, No Graven Image? Israelite Aniconism in Its Ancient Near Eastern Context (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1995). 29. Zevit, Religions of Ancient Israel, 652–4. 30. Ahlström, History of Ancient Palestine, 524. 31. For these texts, see A. E. C. (ed. with trans. and notes by A. E. Cowley; Eugene: Wipf & Stock, 2005). indd 32 23/03/2015 10:27 Textual and Artefactual Evidence for a Native Pantheon 33 which were current in the Israelite or Judahite kingdoms. 32 The significance of the absence of Asherah is discussed in Chapter 7.
As this view is reflected in the non-corrected version of Deut. 4 This kind of territorial monotheism is deemed normative or at least sufficient to justify Israel’s presence in Canaan. That this kind of territorial monotheism clashes with universal monotheism is not considered problematic. At most, Jephthah is conceived of as a proponent of a form of monotheism which became obsolete when Yahweh told Moses that the god El Shaddai who appeared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob was in fact Yahweh himself (Exod.
The present chapter focuses first on mentions of other gods and then on the paredra. 4–13 lists other members of the pantheon in the temple: Baal, the host of heaven, the sun, the moon, the constellations. For good measure, the utter depravity of the people is further illustrated with religious practices supposedly borrowed from the neighboring regions: the Topheth, Molech, the horses and chariot of the sun, Astarte of the Sidonians, Chemosh of Moab, Milcom of the Ammonites. The polemical tone of the passage is conducive to rhetorical exaggeration, and need not be taken as a true reflection of the actual religious atmosphere in late monarchic Jerusalem.