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By Teruya Shinjo

Spintronics is a newly constructing zone within the box of magnetism, the place the interaction of magnetism and delivery phenomena is studied experimentally and theoretically. This publication introduces the hot progresses within the researches in terms of spintronics. - From electronics to spintronics. - Electron has not just cost but in addition spin - Spin present is the foremost notice for destiny units. - How odd are nanostructured magnetic structures? - what's GMRH: From discovery to functions (in case that GMR acquired the Nobel prize in 2007)

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Sample text

8 in the figure corresponds to a measured MR ratio that is about 400% in the optimistic definition of the MR ratio [139, 140]. Recently, similar high MR ratios have been reported. Thus, we understand how a high MR ratio is realized in clean Fe/MgO/Fe junctions. However, high MR ratios also occur in disordered ferromagnetic electrodes such as FeCoB, which has an amorphous structure [150]. Possible reasons for this may be that B atoms may reside on regular sites in the fcc structure after annealing, and the electronic states of B atoms have energies that are distant from the Fermi energy.

33) indicates a balance between the spin accumulation and spin-flip rate. Using the parameters given in Fig. 22, the MR ratio is calculated for an F/N/F trilayer as a function of LF/LN, where LF and LN are the thicknesses of the F and N layers, respectively. We can see that the MR ratio becomes small when the spin-diffusion length is short. 02 0 5 15 10 20 25 LF/LN FIGURE 22 Calculated MR ratio in the Valet–Fert model. LF and LN are the thicknesses of the ferromagnetic and non-magnetic layers, respectively.

Therefore, we expect rþ ( rÀ for Co/Cu multilayers. The spin-dependent resistivity due to magnetic TM impurities in Cu may be estimated by applying the Anderson model. The MR ratio thus calculated is shown in Fig. 18 as a function of the number of d-electrons of the TM impurities [90]. The results are compared with the experimental values in the figure [97–102]. We see that the MR ratio becomes high for Co/Cu multilayers, consistent with experimental results. The calculated results indicate that Ni/Cu shows no MR, in contradiction to the experimental results.

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