By J. W. Akitt (auth.)
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Additional resources for NMR and Chemistry: An introduction to the Fourier transform-multinuclear era
The outer lines of the nonet are lost in the base-line noise and the student should confirm that the intensity ratios of the observed lines correspond to those expected for the inner seven of the nonet rather than to those expected for a septet. The arrows around the formu1a indicate the various coupling interactions in Hz. The single fluorine nonet is recorded at higher gain. (After McFarlane, Noble and Winfield (1971) J. ehem. Soc. ) Intemuclear spin-spin coupling 45 atoms associated with the 183W atom and therefore split into a satellite doublet and then further coupled to the remaining four which are equally associated with the 184W atom.
3, p. 137, though before we 32 NMR and Chemistry consider these we must find out how to recognize multiplicity which arises from spin coupling and how to determine J. Karplus-type relationships apply also to most other nuclei. 2 The appearance of multiplets arising from spin-spin coupling The appearance of these multiplets is very characteristic and contains much information additional to that gained from the chernical shifts of each resonance. For this reason we intend to go into their analysis in some detail if not in depth.
I) The nature of the bonding system, Le. upon the number and bond order of the bonds intervening between the nuelei and upon the angles between the bonds. The interaction is not usually observed over more than five or six bonds and tends to be attenuated as the number of bonds inereases though many eases are known where coupling over two bonds is less than eoupling over three bonds. (ii) The magnetie moments of the two nuclei and is direetly proportional to the produet 'YA 'Y8 where 'YA and 'Y8 are the magnetogyrie ratios ofthe interacting nucleL (iii) The valence s electron density at the nucleus * The chlorine nuc1ei (I = 3/2) have no effect.