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Biofuels are only a partial solution and will take up huge areas of land that are needed for other things. 43 Controlling “Big Oil” Big oil companies are massive multi-national corporations. They operate in many different locations around the world. Many campaigners believe that big oil companies are out of control. Their argument is that, because they are so big and oil is such an essential resource, the companies can have too much influence on governments. Critics point to the fact that the lure of oil for governments and companies leads to human rights abuses in some of the world’s poorest countries, such as in West Africa.

48 A small rise in sea level means that islands like the Maldives would disappear beneath the ocean. debate: are big oil companies only interested in profits? Arguments for: • The Deepwater Horizon is the biggest of thousands of accidents offshore and onshore. If companies cared about the environment they would try harder to reduce the impact of the oil industry. • Oil companies have ignored all the evidence on climate change, putting huge amounts of money into finding more oil rather than supporting renewable energy or reducing the amount of oil we use.

17 climate change 4, 28, 37, 38, 42, 43, 48, 49, 50, 51 coal 6, 40, 50 coastlines 4, 8, 10, 13, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 45, 47, 51 continental shelf 9, 13 costs 4, 10, 12, 13, 19, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 43, 45, 47, 49 crude oil 7, 9, 32, 40 deaths 4, 18, 45 debate 29, 37, 43, 49 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig 4, 7, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 30, 31, 37, 40, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 demand 28, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 43 developing countries 30, 35, 38, 39 dispersants 22, 23 distillation 7 drilling mud 14, 18, 21 drilling rigs 4, 8, 13, 14, 15, 48 56 drill strings 14, 18 economies 25, 30, 34, 38, 39 ecosystems 4, 10, 19, 25, 26, 27, 29, 41, 51 electricity 6, 14, 38, 40, 42, 51 emissions 32, 38, 39, 40, 42, 50, 51 environmentalists 10, 26, 27, 41, 42, 44, 45 ethanol 41 European Union 11, 26, 30, 33, 34, 40 exploration 4–5, 10, 12, 13, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 37, 43, 44, 45, 48 Exxon-Mobil oil company 11, 34, 42 Exxon Valdez oil tanker 24 Falkland Islands 10, 48 fines 46, 49 fishing industry 4, 19, 22, 23 fossil fuels 6, 28, 40, 42, 43 Gazprom gas company 40 geothermal energy 42, 51 global warming 48 governments 5, 11, 13, 21, 23, 24, 29, 32, 34, 36, 37, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49 GPS (Global Positioning System) 14 greenhouse gases 28, 32, 41, 50 Greenland 10 Gulf of Mexico 4, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 26, 47 hurricanes 16, 17 hydro-electricity 42, 51 imports 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 44, 47, 48, 50 India 30, 36, 37, 39 industrialization 30, 38 inspections 46 international agreements 25, 39–40 Iran 10, 11, 34, 40 Iraq 10, 36 Ixtoc 1 oil spill 23 Japan 34 Kalamazoo River 45 Kuwait 10, 11, 30 Kyoto Protocol (1997) 39 laws 23, 44, 46, 47 leases 13 Libya 44 maintenance 19, 45 mapping 12, 13, 25 marine life 22, 23, 24, 25, 27 “mature” oil fields 32, 33 media 20, 44 micro-organisms 22 National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 22 natural gas 4, 6, 9, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, 32, 36, 40, 42, 43, 50 non-renewable resources 6, 7, 30, 40, 50 North Sea 32, 33 nuclear power 32, 40, 42, 43, 50 Obama, Barack 21, 47 oil companies 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49 oil fields 10, 30, 32, 33 oil platforms 8, 10, 14, 15, 17, 22, 30, 33, 48 oil prices 28, 32, 34, 35, 37 oil reserves 5, 7, 10, 11, 25, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 48, 50 oil sands see tar sands oil slicks 23, 24 oil spills 4, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 45, 47, 48 oil tankers 20, 26 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 34 Perdido Spar production platform 9, 15 Persian Gulf 10 pipelines 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 45, 50 pollution 40, 50 pressure 14, 15, 16, 19, 21, 26, 32, 45 recycling 39 refineries 7, 45 renewable resources 42, 43, 49, 51 restrictions 23, 25, 44, 47 risk management 15, 16, 20 risks 5, 10, 16–17, 21, 26, 30, 32, 36, 37, 40, 48, 50 Russia 10, 11, 36, 40 safety 8, 13, 16–17, 19, 20, 32, 40, 45, 46, 49 Saudi Arabia 5, 10, 11, 30, 44 sedimentary rock 9 seismic survey 12, 13, 25 Shell oil company 8, 9, 11, 15, 34, 42 Shetland Islands 10, 33 solar power 42, 51 submarines 13, 26 tar sands 32, 48, 50 technology 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 17, 25, 28, 30, 37, 48 terrorism 34 test wells 10, 12 thrusters 14, 15 transport 4, 6, 14, 25, 26, 28, 34, 38, 39, 45, 50 typhoons 17 United Kingdom 10, 32, 33, 34, 38, 40, 47, 48 United States 4, 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 46, 47 uses 6–7, 38, 40 US Geological Survey 27 wars 10, 36, 48 Westwell, Steve 5 wetlands 21, 23, 24 wind energy 42, 51 Wiygul, Robert 20 workers 4, 14, 17, 18, 19, 22, 27, 29, 45, 49 HOT TOPICS HOT TOPICS Hot Topics tackles many high-profile subjects of concern and interest to the public.

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