By William Gregory
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Presents accomplished assurance of the categories of rate reductions gone through by means of many of the periods of natural chemistry. Discusses mark downs in accordance with what bond or sensible staff is diminished through diverse reagents. provides particular cognizance to selective mark downs which are appropriate for the relief of 1 specific form of bond or functionality with no affecting different bonds or services found in an analogous molecule.
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Additional info for Outlines of chemistry for the use of students - (Two part)
7 em 4a The second result or corollary from the atomic theory is, that when two compounds having a common element unite together, the amount of the common element in the equivalent of the one amount in the equivalent of the other, in a ratio which be expressed by whole numbers. Thus, potash is composed of potassium and oxygen, sulphuric acid of sulphur and Here oxygen is the common element. Now, in an oxygen. equivalent of potash, K 0, there is 1 atom of oxygen i 8. c h may it is obvious that the oxygen in the latter is This relation is at once seen in 1.
Of hydrogen and 1 eq. of chlorine ; and we say that the composition of hydrochloric acid is proportional to that of oxide of potassium A ll. vn A em 4a AB (potash). c h a complete case of double decomposition. Thus 1 eq. hydrochloric acid and 1 eq. oxide of potassium, act on each other, and give rise to water (1 eq. oxygen and 1 eq. hydrogen) and to chloride of potassium (1 eq. chlorine and 1 eq. potassium) which new compounds are obviously proportional. Any excess of either of the original compounds, beyond the 1 eq.
Now these latter numbers are atomic weights or equivalents of oxygen and I'OOO. hydrogen, oxygen being made the standard, and Again, 1 vol. hydrogen combines with 1 vol. chlorine to form hydrochloric acid. Now, if 1 vol. hydrogen as above, be represented as weighing 0'0625, 1 vol. chlorine will be found to weigh 2- 25 ; and these numbers are to each other precisely in the ratio of the equivalents of the two gases, which, on the oxygen scale, are 12'5 and 450, or on the hydrogen scale = ht tp precisely the and 36.