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Further addition leads to a positively charged surface. Adsorption of Charged Species (Ions and Ionic Surfactants) Surfactant ions may be specifically adsorbed on the surface of a particle, leading, in the case of cationic surfactants, to a positively charged surface and, in the case of anionic surfactants, to a negatively charged surface. The Electrical Double Layer Negatively charged particle Slipping plane Based on the above mechanisms, latexes, pigments and in fact most materials suspended in aqueous media, carry a surface charge.

However, sheer size of these molecules renders them ineffective wetting agents. The wealth of industrial experience dictates that efficient and homogeneous distribution of solid pigments is a key factor affecting the performance, stability and ultimate profitability of the paint formulation. , flocculation, color shift, flooding, floating, leveling, settling), pigment agglomerates and aggregates are broken down to their fundamental particles and distributed homogeneously throughout the medium. This process usually consists of three fundamental steps:1,2 · wetting agglomerates by the medium; · separation of the pigment particles; and · stabilization of the pigment particles in the dispersed state preventing reagglomeration and flocculation.

Steric stabilization is simple, requiring only a suitable polymer. However, it can be difficult subsequently to flocculate the system if this is what is required. Expense may be a drawback, and sometimes it is not desirable to have a polymer present. Electrostatic or charge stabilization works by simply altering the concentration of ions in the system – a reversible and potentially inexpensive process. Zeta potential has long been recognized as a very good index of the magnitude of the interaction between colloi- FIGURE 1 | Optical configuration of the Zetasizer Nano series for zeta potential measurements.

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