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By P. Schofield

In contemporary years, paintings at the medieval English peasant has tended to emphasize the measure of interplay among the village and the area past its bounds. This ebook not just presents an outline of this learn, but in addition develops this procedure. Phillipp R. Schofield describes the conventional global of the peasant - with recognition given to such matters as kinfolk among lord and tenant, and the character of the peasant relations - and locations the peasantry of the overdue center a while in the wider political, criminal, ecclesiastical and advertisement international of the medieval community.

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A day’s ploughing in winter and sowing at Lent. The tenant was also to help in the construction of haystacks; he also owed suit of court and of mill, which meant that he was obliged to attend the lord’s manor court to aid in its administration, and to grind his grain at the lord’s mill. In addition to these regular dues, there were also irregular payments (consuetudines non taxatas) which unfree tenants, including the holders of these standard tenements, made to their lords. Tenants at Orchard, as elsewhere, would have paid fines to leave the manor, to marry, and to educate their offspring; the heir of an unfree tenant also paid a duty, normally the best beast of the tenant’s livestock, on that tenant’s death, a convention known as ‘heriot’.

By the early fifteenth century, very few lords expected to receive labour rent and had either contented themselves with ‘farms’ from contractual leaseholds or had already long been in receipt of customary or freehold money rents. 3 DETERMINANTS OF PEASANT LANDHOLDING Having set out the ways in which land was held, its extent, its obligations and its legal tenures, it is evident that no simple uniformity of peasant landholding existed in medieval England. In order to comprehend this diversity, it will be useful to consider the combination of factors that might have contributed to it.

By the end of the fourteenth century, if we Determinants of Peasant Landholding 37 were to graph those movements, we would see wages and prices parting company, with the price of foodstuffs falling as wages continued to rise. Such movements, themselves the effect of a variety of influences, including shortage of coin and bullion, climate changes and crop yields, population movement, and levels of taxation, had clear implications for rent. In the first and most obvious case, money rents altered in their real value according to the behaviour of wages and prices.

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