By Syun-Ichi Akasofu (auth.)
Man, via in depth observations of normal phenomena, has discovered approximately the various simple rules which govern nature. The aurora is among the such a lot attention-grabbing of those usual phenomena, and by way of learning it, guy has simply all started to realize auroral phenomena by way of easy cosmic electrodynamic procedures. The systematic and huge commentary of the aurora in the course of and after the nice foreign firm, the overseas Geophysical 12 months (lGY), ended in the concept that of the auroral substorm. Like many different geophysical phenomena, auroral screens have a twin time (universal- and local-time) dependence while noticeable through a ground-based observer. hence, it used to be a tough activity for unmarried observers, rotating with the Earth as soon as an afternoon, to understand a temporary characteristic of a large-scale auroral demonstrate. any such complexity is inevitable in learning many geophysical positive factors, particularly the polar higher atmospheric phenomena. notwithstanding, it was once stumbled on that their complexity started to spread whilst the concept that of the auroral substorm was once brought. In a e-book entitled Polar and Magnetospheric Substorms, the predeces sor to this booklet, i attempted to explain the auroral phenomena as thoroughly as attainable when it comes to the concept that of the auroral substorm. at the moment, the 1st satellite tv for pc observations of debris and magnetic fields in the course of substorms have been simply turning into to be had, and it used to be instructed that the auroral sub hurricane is a manifestation of a magnetospheric phenomenon known as the magnetospheric substorm.
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Extra info for Physics of Magnetospheric Substorms
Electric field becomes much weaker beyond the boundary called 'the Alfven layer' by the authors. This shielding results from the electric polarization in the Alfven layer, which is caused by a differential motion of protons and electrons in the non-uniform geomagnetic field. For an observer in the rest frame, the potential distribution cJJ m is given by cJJ m = cJJ - nR~B; sin2 (¥- A) where n and Be denote the angular speed of the Earth and the magnetic field intensity on the Earth's surface at the equator, respectively.
246, D. Reidel Publ. ) 12 220 KM + 200 m/s Fig. 20. Convection velocity vectors at 220 km altitude, observed by the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar, on 1972, February 11-12. (Doupnik, J. , Banks, P. , Baron, M. , Rino, C. : I. Geophys. Res. ) 40 CHAPTER I flow in the midnight sector. Note that the equatorward flow in the midnight sector is much more enhanced than the poleward flow in the midday sector; the sub storm was in progress at that time. (iv) Particle motions. On the basis of observations of both protons and electrons for a wide range of energies (0-20 ke V) observed at the synchronous distance, McIlwain (1972, 1974) deduced the electric potential distribution for a given magnetic field distribution in the equatorial plane.
Reidel Pub!. ) 34 CHAPTER 1 NOON MIDNIGHT Fig. 15. Electric equipotentials for the charge distribution given by p = po sin", where '" = 15° x MLT. (Stern, D. ) Outside the auroral oval, the electric field distribution is complicated by the presence of the Harang discontinuity in the late evening sector. The north-south component of the electric field reverses the sign across the discontinuity. 16. Maynard (1974) showed that the discontinuity is present even during quiet periods but becomes quite dynamic during substorms.