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By Scoog D.A., Holler F.J., Crouch S.R.

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Greek and Roman writers were wrong about beer being solely a drink of the lower classes; grain was so plentiful (there being enough for export in most years) and readily converted into beer that the upper echelons of Egyptian society regularly partook. It had been generally agreed that grain-growing and brewing technology were far less complicated, if no less onerous, than viticulture and vinification, and this, together with the fact that grain was plentiful, resulted in beer being much cheaper than wine.

E. 6. Such a problem does not arise with amylases from microbial sources. This means that saccharification and alcoholic fermentation can be carried out simultaneously in many artisanal brewing processes around the world, where starch breakdown is effected by enzymes from various moulds and bacteria. If two “vessels” were used, then it would make sense for the one in which mashing took place to have a wide mouth (to facilitate stirring), and the one accommodating fermentation to have a narrow neck (to exclude as much air as possible and encourage anaerobic conditions).

The change in taste and texture of a malted grain, as opposed to a raw barley grain, is quite spectacular. Barley a-amylase works most efficiently in the temperature range 64-68 OC, whilst the optimum activity of its 0-amylase lies within the 60-65 “C range. Before starch can be enzymatically degraded, it has to be “unravelled”, in order to permit the amylases to exert their lytic activity. The unravelling process is called gelatinisation, and in the large granules in barley, occurs at a temperature of around 58-62 “C.

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