By Adam Rogers
People were perfecting the technological know-how of alcohol construction for 10000 years, yet sleek scientists are just simply starting to distill the complicated reactions at the back of the appropriate buzz. In a lively journey throughout continents and cultures, Adam Rogers places our alcoholic heritage below the microscope, from our ancestors' unintentional discovery of fermented beverages to the state-of-the-art laboratory study that proves why—or even if—people really just like the stuff.
From fermentation to distillation to getting older, Proof deals a distinct glimpse contained in the barrels, stills, tanks, and casks that produce iconic beverages. Rogers ventures from the whiskey-making mecca of the Scottish Highlands to the main subtle gene-sequencing labs within the world—and to a couple of bar—introducing us to the motley characters and evolving technological know-how at the back of the newest advancements in boozy expertise. He uncovers alcohol's inner most mysteries, chasing the physics, molecular biology, natural chemistry, or even metallurgy that strength alcohol construction, and the delicate mix of psychology and neurobiology that fuels our style for these products.
With intoxicating enthusiasm, Rogers finds alcohol as a miracle of technological know-how. If you've ever questioned how precisely your drink of selection arrived on your glass, or precisely what's going to take place to you when you empty it, Proof makes an remarkable consuming better half.
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Extra resources for Proof: The Science of Booze
The type of mash cooler used depends on the cellar environment. The wine maker may soak the grape skin in the juice if he wishes to extract the flavors and aromas trapped in the skins (Arkell 2003). Certain varieties benefit more from skin contact, and the length of the contact depends on the temperature. Depending on the variety, skin contact may be for up to 18 h at 5°C–10°C. Skin contact is of greatest value with quality grapes from cool regions. With certain production methods, such as premium white wines and red wines produced by carbonic maceration and whole cluster fermentation, the grapes may be pressed without being de-stemmed and crushed.
It also ranks as the fifth largest wine producer according to OIV, and the biggest in Asia, with about 10 times more volume than Japan and India. Some provincial and regional governments strongly support the wine sector; particularly, the northwest areas (Ningxia, Gansu, and Xinjiang) have ambitious wine development plans. The wine industry is increasing not only in the traditional highly populated northeastern coastal areas but also in the more sparsely populated northwest ones, becoming a part of a shift in wine production in China.
On the other hand, vineyard pruning residues have peculiar quality characteristics compared to other lignocellulosic feedstock, which may affect the choice and the performance of the conversion technology, as well as the potential for cofiring (Molcan et al. 2009). Previous studies have shown that many types of lignocellulosic waste, such as vineyard pruning waste, can be hydrolyzed to extract hemicellulosic sugars, which can be fermented easily and cheaply to produce valuable substances, such as lactic acid and biosurfactants.