By A. N. Oppenheim
This moment version of Dr Bram Oppenheim's tested paintings, just like the first, is a pragmatic educating textual content of survey tools. the recent variation has prolonged its scope to incorporate interviewing (both clip-board and intensity interviewing), sampling and study layout, info research, and a distinct bankruptcy on pilot paintings. As prior to, the chapters on questionnaire layout are supported via additional chapters on angle scaling tools, and on projective options. there's refreshingly severe remedy of difficulties similar to defective learn designs, error in sampling, ambiguities in query wording, biases in interviewing, losses of knowledge, and the translation of angle scales and of projective info. The publication is laced all through with instructive examples from many fields, starting from advertising surveys to the learn of kid's political perceptions. difficulties of reliability and validity are stored to the fore. notably, the necessity for pilot paintings is emphasised at each level. The booklet is meant for graduate method classes within the social sciences, however it is additionally designed to arrive different pros, together with lecturers, social employees, scientific researchers, and opinion pollsters, who've to guage or perform social surveys.
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Additional resources for Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement
Above all, they must cultivate the art of the nondirective probe. ' We should avoid the temptation to disagree with the respondent or to enter into an argument. Our job is to get the respondents to reveal their inner thought processes -but how are we to do this? Here is where we need the non-directive probe. For example, we might merely offer a tentative 'uhum, uhum', implying that the respondent should continue to develop this line of thought. Or we might just say nothing, and merely smile expectantly.
A depth interviewer has to engage in a little bit of acting from time to time rather than try to ask 'correct' questions. Thus, there is probably no need to ask: 'Now what about your children? Do you have boys, or girls or some of each? How old are they? And how do you feel about them? ' The interviewer could merely look up and say, quietly, 'Children. . ' and await a reply as construed by the respondent. This also avoids the danger of leading, of putting ideas into the respondent's mind or pre-determining the lines of response.
But quality, rather than quantity, should be the essential determinant of numbers. How should the respondents be obtained? Ideally each respondent should be recruited by a field interviewer. One or more field interviewers should be sent out with something like a quota sample to fill (for example, five middle-class women over sixty who have lost their husbands in an accident or in some other sudden way within the past six months). They should explain to potential respondents that the interview will last about an hour or perhaps longer; that the interviewer will be an experienced professional who will maintain confidentiality and high ethical standards; that the questions will not be of the marketresearch type but will range widely over many topics; and that their expenses will be paid, together with a modest fee (if any) for their assistance.