By Paul Diesing
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Additional info for Reason in Society: Five Types of Decisions and Their Social Conditions
A player must actually commit himself to the use of power before it becomes a threat to his opponent. And where there are good reasons to limit commitment, effective power relations may be quite different from actual power relations. Two rules are relevant in determining the proper amount of power to commit: (I) the more important the issue, the more power should be committed; (2) the more expensive the use of power, the less it should be committed. These rules sometimes operate to reduce power differentials.
E of inf~rmation theory, cues are instructions on how to interpret mformatIOn. ish. n, and the like. SltIOn one is assuming and how he expects to be treated. Clothes m par- ticular can be varied in subtle conventional ways to indicate the exact degree of formality one expects, to express various kinds and degrees of feeling and indicate what emotional responses are appropriate, and to call attention to specific relationships and group memberships (uniforms). More detailed cues are provided by the style of one's language, by bearing, gestures, and inflection.
Another common group of norms relates to gift giving,. the baSIC norm being that a gift ought to be repaid with a return gift. When gift norms are operative a good strategic rule is to keep one's op~onent in debt, but not too far in debt. right to make further demands. In some cases the creditor has the nght to suggest a return gift and the debtor is obliged to provide it; su~h. a norm makes generosity an even more effective strategy. Bargammg then moves by gifts and countergifts rather than by demands, and the most generous donor wins.