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By Lucy Hovil

This e-book is set the convergence of 2 difficulties: the continued realities of clash and compelled migration in Africa’s nice Lakes quarter, and the drawback of citizenship and belonging. by way of bringing them jointly, the purpose is to determine how, mixed, they could aid aspect the best way in the direction of attainable options. according to 1,115 interviews carried out over 6 years within the zone, the ebook issues to ways that refugees problem the parameters of citizenship and belonging as they carve out areas for inclusion within the localities during which they dwell. but with a coverage surroundings that regularly ends up in marginalisation, the e-book highlights the necessity for regulations that pull humans into the centre instead of polarise and exclude; and that draw on, instead of negate, the creativity that refugees reveal of their quest to forge areas of belonging.

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Extra resources for Refugees, Conflict and the Search for Belonging

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37. 38. 39. 40. 41. is based on the expectation that national membership will provide individuals with access to the rights and protections of citizenship that will, in turn, enable the realisation of other human rights. It does not, however, confer a right to a particular citizenship. The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, which came into force in 1975, recognises that persons can be both de jure and de facto stateless (without effective nationality) but offers little in the way of binding obligations on states.

The creation of refugee law constituted one of the first direct challenges to state sovereignty with respect to the control of state borders, inserting the refugee into a new community and establishing a basic status and set of rights to which the persecuted exile was entitled. 31 The responsibility to protect (R2P) is an extension of this process, providing that although the state has the primary responsibility for protecting ‘its populations’, if it fails to do so then the international community also has a responsibility.

4 THE POLITICS OF ETHNICITY A significant arena in which identity is articulated and played out within the Great Lakes is through the expression of ethnic identities, a highly contentious issue that continues to generate considerable debate. 47 Such definitions, which tease apart the different functions and roles of ethnicity, provide a helpful starting point for talking about ethnicity in the African context where too often notions of identity and ethnicity are treated as synonymous. As stated above, ethnicity or ‘tribalism’ can easily become the default explanation for violence in Africa, with assumptions CONFLICT AND DISPLACEMENT, CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING...

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