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By Lindsay (EDT) / Karasmanes, V. (EDT) Judson

Lindsay Judson and Vassilis Karasmanis current a range of philosophical papers via a great foreign workforce of students, assessing the legacy and carrying on with relevance of Socrates's notion 2,400 years after his demise. the subjects of the papers comprise Socratic technique; the inspiration of definition; Socrates's intellectualist perception of ethics; well-known arguments within the Euthyphro and Crito; and facets of the later portrayal and reception of Socrates as a philosophical and moral exemplar, by way of Plato, the Sceptics, and within the early Christian period. participants contain Lesley Brown, David Charles, John Cooper, Michael Frede, Terence Irwin, Charles Kahn, Vassilis Karasmanis, Carlo Natali, Vasilis Politis, Dory Scaltsas, Gerhard Seel, and C. C. W. Taylor.

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What they lack is practical wisdom, not self-control. Therefore self-control cannot be suYcient for acquiring practical knowledge. e. the possibility that somebody acquires general practical knowledge but fails to apply it in a particular decision because of akrasia. There are, however, no traces in Xenophon’s text that Socrates considered this possibility. Let me summarize the results of our investigation in a systematic way, putting the four main terms under discussion—sophos, asophos, egkrateˆs, and akrateˆs—in a two by two table (see Wgure).

Let us also consider the following question put to Euthydemus (4. 5. 6; OCT 129. 10–16): (T15) As for wisdom, the greatest good, does it not seem to you that lack of self-control drives men away from it and throws them into the contrary of it. 27 Here lack of self-control is described as having two negative eVects: (a) preventing the acquisition of practical knowledge, (b) preventing the correct choice by disturbing the perception of good and evil. 28 The next question is whether according to Socrates as depicted by Xenophon self-control is not only a necessary condition for practical knowledge but also a suYcient one.

The meaning of neither sentence is controversial. The next paragraph (3. 9. 5) is no less interesting for our purposes. Right in the Wrst sentence (23–4) Xenophon tells us that Socrates held Pos. D. He then (90. 24– 91. 4) reports Socrates’ argument for this. 1: All forms of actions that are done through virtue are noble and good. 1 is a weak form of our deWnition of virtue; it is only a weak form because it does not say that only actions accomplished through virtue are noble and good. 2: Nobody who knows the noble and good things will choose something other than these.

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