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By H. Şebnem Düzgün, Nuray Demirel

1 advent 1.1 Sustainability in mining 1.2 Environmental affects of mining 1.3 Environmental effect tracking in mining 1.4 Mine land tracking 1.5 function of distant sensing in mine tracking 1.6 Scope of the e-book References 2 rules of distant sensing 2.1 Definition of distant sensing 2.2 ideas of electromagnetic radiation 2.3 actual legislation of electromagnetic strength 2.4 The electromagnetic spectrum 2.5 Read more...

summary: 1 advent 1.1 Sustainability in mining 1.2 Environmental affects of mining 1.3 Environmental influence tracking in mining 1.4 Mine land tracking 1.5 function of distant sensing in mine tracking 1.6 Scope of the publication References 2 rules of distant sensing 2.1 Definition of distant sensing 2.2 ideas of electromagnetic radiation 2.3 actual legislation of electromagnetic strength 2.4 The electromagnetic spectrum 2.5 The interplay of electromagnetic power with the ambience 2.6 The interplay of electromagnetic strength with the thing surfaces on the planet 2.7 position of spectral reflectance cu

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6697 × 10−8 Watts/ m2 ·K−4. According to the Stefan-Boltzman law, the fourth power of the blackbody’s temperature is proportional to the total energy radiation coming from the unit area of the blackbody in unit time. The Stefan-Boltzman law implies that the radiation emitted/unit area from the hotter blackbodies is higher than that from the cooler ones. Finally, the last law to be mentioned related to interaction between the objects and electromagnetic radiation is Wien’s displacement law which defines the association between temperature of the blackbody and the emitted radiation’s wavelength (Eq.

Hence the emissivity of a graybody is the ratio of the emittance of the graybody (M) to emittance of blackbody (Mb ) at the given temperature (Eq. 4) The value of ε ranges between 0 and 1; 1 being the emissivity of the perfect blackbody and 0 being that of a whitebody which is 100% reflecting the electromagnetic energy. The relation between temperature (T) and total emitted radiation (W), which is expressed in Watts/cm2 , is established by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law given in Eq. 5. 5) In Eq. 6697 × 10−8 Watts/ m2 ·K−4.

Due to the need for error checking, practically the required number of GCPs is around 7–8, for bilinear transformation. 7 Transformation functions for geometric distortions/correction (Aronof, 2005) The Quadratic transformation function is a second order polynomial with a total of 12 coefficients to be obtained from at least six GCPs (Eq. 3). Actually, this transformation requires 10–12 GCPs to evaluate the errors as well as the polynomial coefficients. 7. 3) The Bi-quadratic transformation function has six more polynomial terms added to Eq.

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