By Jennie I. Litvack, Junaid Ahmad, Richard Miller Bird
Political strain drives nearly all of decentralization efforts in constructing nations. despite its origins, decentralization could have major repercussions for source mobilization and allocation, and finally macroeconomic balance, carrier supply, and fairness. This quantity describes the complexity of the decentralization procedure, provides the teachings discovered concerning the layout of decentralization, and attracts implications from this research for destiny study agendas.
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Extra resources for Rethinking Decentralization in Developing Countries (Sector Studies Series)
Decentralization is particularly widespread in developing countries for a variety of reasons: the advent of multiparty political systems in Africa; the deepening of democratization in Latin America; the transition from a command to a market economy in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union; the need to improve delivery of local services to large populations in the centralized countries of East Asia; the challenge of ethnic and geographic diversity in South Asia, as well as ethnic tensions in other countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ethiopia, Russia) and the attempt to keep centrifugal forces at bay by forging asymmetrical federations; and the plain and simple reality that central governments have often failed to provide effective public services.
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4 We do not know enough empirically to make definitive recommendations about which types of decen- Page 3 tralization are best for which services in which institutional settings. Much of the discussion of decentralization reflects a curious combination of strong preconceived beliefs and limited empirical evidence. But we do know that the best design will vary depending on circumstances and institutions, and that this complexity has sometimes been overlooked in the haste to offer policy advice. If a common framework can be established, we can begin to assemble documented case studies of decentralization, so that within a few years we may be able to identify with more precision patterns of success and failure.