By Naresh K. Malhorta
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Extra resources for Review of Marketing Research, Sixth Edition
The self-concept consists of actual and ideal forms of the self- and social-image, and self-congruity thus involves assessments of the degree of self-consistency (with one’s actual self-image), self-esteem (with one’s ideal self-image), social consistency (with one’s actual social-image), and social approval (with one’s ideal social-image). The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of decision making is also reflected in research on attitudes. Batra and Ahtola (1991) distinguish between hedonic and utilitarian sources of consumer attitudes (see also Ahtola 1985).
Rossiter and his coauthors develop specific advertising tactics to be used in the four quadrants of the grid and argue that their model yields much richer insights into the advertising planning process than the FCB grid. The major advantage of the Rossiter-Percy-Donovan grid seems to be that the potential motivations underlying purchases are considered more explicitly than in the FCB grid (or, more generally, in discussions of the functional and psycho-social bases of decision making). However, the model was developed as an advertising planning tool; as a framework for classifying different purchase behaviors, it does not go much beyond the original FCB grid, and it cannot account for the differences among purchase behaviors such as variety seeking, impulse buying, or simple hedonic purchases.
Habit-controlled choice refers to acquisition behavior that is directly controlled by previous choice behavior. Belk suggests that habits will influence intentions most strongly for frequently purchased, low-involvement products, but he argues that habit-controlled choice can occur in both low- and high-involvement situations. Belk treats curiosity-controlled choice as the opposite of habit-controlled choice, and he refers to cases in which the positive effect of habits on acquisition behavior is disrupted or reversed.