Download Sidereus Nuncius by Galileo Galilei, Albert Van Helden PDF

By Galileo Galilei, Albert Van Helden

;Sidereus Nuncius КНИГИ ; ИСТОРИЯ Автор:Galileo Galileo Название: Sidereus Nuncius Издательство: Venice Год: 1610 Формат: PDF Размер: 109 МБ Для сайта: www.mirknig.comИсторики науки почти единодушно считают, что Галилей если не изобрел, то усовершенствовал телескоп. Он изготовил трубу с увеличением в 30 раз и в августе 1609 продемонстрировал ее сенату Венеции. С помощью своей трубы Галилей начал наблюдение ночного неба. Результаты его наблюдений и составили эту книгу. Мысли, высказанные Галилеем в Звездном вестнике, никак не вписывались в рамки аристотелевского мировоззрения. Они совпадали со взглядами Коперника и Бруно. Так, Галилей считал Луну сходной по своей природе с Землей, а с точки зрения Аристотеля (и церкви) не могло быть и речи о подобии «земного» и «небесного». Так начались его расхождения со святой Инквизицией...Раритет - первоиздание звездных наблюдений Галилея. Была издана огромным по тем временам тиражом - 550 экземпляров, и практически сразу была издана пиратская копия этого произведения с рисунками, не слишком искусно исполненными в технике ксилографии. Книга оцифрована известной компанией 8vo, специализирующейся на высококачественном копировании старинных книг и манускриптов.0

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1 which were also written by hand as manuscripts, and free-standing celestial images were quite rare. These illustrations often were hand-colored and were quite beautiful, although accuracy was usually sacri®ced for art. For example, early depictions of constellations in manuscripts typically emphasized the form of the constellation ®gure being discussed rather than accurately representing the location of the stars within that ®gure. Manuscripts often were written and illustrated by monks, and they usually took months to complete.

Careful astronomical records were kept for centuries, and patterns related to such things as eclipses and planetary orbits were noted, much as was the case for the Babylonians. The Chinese believed that there were ®ve elements: wood, ®re, earth, metal, and water. These were related to each other in complicated ways. For example, wood Sec. 1 China 19 could produce ®re, which could produce earth, which could produce metal, which could produce water, which could produce wood again. However, wood could destroy earth, but ®re would mask this process, and ®re could destroy metal, but earth masked this process, and so on.

Usually, there were rings representing the meridian, the celestial equator, and the ecliptic. In some larger versions, there were also rings representing the orbits of the Sun and planets. Many of the rings were calibrated in degrees. In the center was a sphere representing the Earth. Most armillary spheres that were used for observation and calculation were large and made out of brass, but those that were primarily used for demonstrational purposes were smaller and often constructed of cheaper material such as wood rather than metal.

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