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By M.J. McPherson

This publication has been written as a reference and textual content for engineers, researchers, academics and scholars who've an curiosity within the making plans and keep an eye on of our environment in underground openings. whereas directed basically to underground mining operations, the layout strategies also are appropriate to different complicated advancements of subsurface area comparable to nuclear waste repositories, advertisement lodging or vehicular networks. The ebook will, consequently, be invaluable for mining, civil, mechanical, and heating, ventilating and air-conditioning engineers eager about such agencies. The chapters on airborne pollution spotlight technique of size and keep watch over in addition to physiological response. those subject matters may be of specific curiosity to business hygienists and scholars of business medication. one of many first technical functions of electronic desktops within the world's mining industries was once for air flow community research. This happened throughout the early Sixties. besides the fact that, it used to be no longer till low-cost yet robust own pcs proliferated in engineering workplaces throughout the Eighties that the entire effect of the pc revolution used to be learned within the daily paintings of such a lot mine air flow engineers. This ebook displays the alterations in strategy and layout tactics which have been led to by way of that revolution. whereas the booklet is prepared into six components, it encompasses 3 large areas.

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Sample text

The German engineer G. H. L. Hagen (1797-1884) found that the type of flow depended upon the velocity and viscosity of the fluid. However, it was not until the 1880s that Professor Osborne Reynolds of Manchester University in England established a means of characterizing the type of flow regime through a combination of experiments and logical reasoning. Reynolds' laboratory tests consisted of injecting a filament of coloured dye into the bell mouth of a horizontal glass tube that was submerged in still water within a large glass-walled tank.

01 I' '6\ -~~ ~ "" .... o ..... 0025 I rough -- -- - "'" ""-.. 0010 ~ r---..... 016 5 106 Variation off with respect to Re as found by Nikuradse. each tube was then defined as cld where c was the diameter of the sand grains and d the diameter of the tube. The advantages of dimensionless numbers had been well learned from Reynolds. The corresponding f-Re relationships are illustrated on Fig. 6. The investigators of the time were then faced with an intriguing question. e. follow the smooth pipe curve) at certain Reynolds' numbers but become 'rough' (constant f) at higher Reynolds' numbers?

The answer is that in a majority of mines and other subsurface facilities, the ranges of temperature and pressure are such that the variation in air density is fairly limited. Airflow measurements in mines are normally made to within 5% accuracy. A 5% change in air density occurs by moving through a vertical elevation of some 500 m in the gravitational field at the surface of the earth. Hence, the assumption of incompressible flow with its simpler analytical relationships gives acceptable accuracy in most cases.

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