By J.O. Robertson, G.V. Chilingarian, S. Kumar
This can be the 1st a part of a two-volume paintings which comes at a time while oil manufacturers are taking an in depth examine the economic system of oilfield operation and remodel of creation know-how to enhance final restoration. The very excessive expense, and chance, of the hunt for brand new oilfields calls for the second look of construction expertise and reservoir engineering to enhance the creation features of present oilfields. it's the goal of this paintings that it'll be instrumental within the development of the worldwide enhancement of oil creation and supreme restoration. it's the consequence of in depth collaboration among specialists in petroleum who've dedicated their time to the lucid expression of the information that they have got received via adventure within the review and answer of box difficulties, and improvement of monetary box approaches. Oil construction businesses were beneficiant of their cooperation via advice and encouragement to the authors and permission to put up info, designs and images. jointly, the 2 books offer a close and accomplished assurance of the topic.
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Extra info for Surface Operations in Petroleum Production, II
COLEMAN Distinguishing natural gases from different sources is of critical importance to the petroleum industry and to the general public. Gas which migrates from gas or oil wells, pipelines, or storage reservoirs can result in a significant loss to the owner or, under some circumstances, can reach the surface or enter public water supplies and result in hazardous situations. In other cases, gas whch is thought to be a migrated gas is, in fact, naturally occurring (native) gas. It is, therefore, of prime importance to be able to distinguish gases from different sources.
One company could quote a 10: 1 rangeability (3-30 gprn), whereas another company could quote 15 : 1, just by decreasing the lower limit by 1 gpm (now 2-30 gprn). A more dramatic change, of course, would be 3-45 gprn for the 15 : 1 rangeability. Repeatubility Repeatability is the ability of a meter to reproduce the same measured readings for identical flow conditions over a period of time. It is, therefore, sometimes called the reproducibility and is generally expressed as the maximum difference between measured readings.
Even where a solid by-pass is used, there is always a hazard in the by-pass operation that the flow may be interrupted accidentally and in many cases this can cause serious or very hazardous problems. Because these plates must frequently be removed to check the condition of the edge of the orifice and to see that there is no Fig. 1-7. Senior orifice plate fitting. ) 39 dirt buildup on the plate, a better method was desirable. As a result, the “senior orifice fitting” (Fig. 1-7) was developed. With this type, the plate can be cranked into the upper chamber, which is outside and sealed from the meter run by a sliding valve.