By Mary A. Renda
The U.S. invasion of Haiti in July 1915 marked the beginning of an army career that lasted for nineteen years--and fed an American fascination with Haiti that flourished even longer. Exploring the cultural dimensions of U.S. touch with Haiti throughout the career and its aftermath, Mary Renda exhibits that what american citizens notion and wrote approximately Haiti in the course of these years contributed in the most important and unforeseen how you can an rising tradition of U.S. imperialism.
on the center of this rising tradition, Renda argues, used to be American paternalism, which observed Haitians as wards of the us. She explores the ways that diversified Americans--including activists, intellectuals, artists, missionaries, marines, and politicians--responded to paternalist constructs, shaping new types of yank tradition alongside the best way. Her research attracts on a wealthy list of U.S. discourses on Haiti, together with the writings of policymakers; the diaries, letters, songs, and memoirs of marines stationed in Haiti; and literary works via such writers as Eugene O'Neill, James Weldon Johnson, Langston Hughes, and Zora Neale Hurston.
Pathbreaking and provocative, Taking Haiti illuminates the advanced interaction among tradition and acts of violence within the making of the yankee empire.
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Additional resources for Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915-1940
Government in Haiti. Yet again, the occupation was also an institution, a power structure. S. government, a temporary state apparatus created for speciﬁc purposes. To some contemporaries, the power of the occupation seemed to be vested in the person of a particular military ofﬁcer or diplomatic ofﬁcial, such as High Commissioner John Russell in the early 1920s. We, too, may at times seem to conﬂate the occupation with an individual or a group of individuals acting in its name, but we must also remember that the occupation as a political structure was more than the sum of its participants.
In this sense, there is no single, ﬁxed, monolithic body of ideas, meanings, or images that can be described as the culture of a particular nation or group. ∑≥ 26 introduction Examining the relationship between culture and the individual, between culture and consciousness, enables us to consider the process of cultural change in some detail. S. occupation of Haiti in the United States. One explains, referring directly to Williams’s work, ‘‘structures of feeling . . are just emerging, still implicit, and not yet fully articulate .
In the process, hegemonic gender relations would be strengthened. At the same time, a handful of women artists, writers, and activists would challenge the status quo in part through their use of and response to paternalist discourse. With regard to sexuality, the discourse of exoticism, so essential to resolving the tension between nation and empire, contributed to the reshaping of sexual norms and representations. In short, as the discourse of paternalism called into play a whole variety of meanings and values surrounding race, gender, sexuality, and national identity, it opened up the possibility that those meanings and values could be reinvigorated, reconﬁgured, or, for that matter, challenged wholesale.