By J. F. Lemaire, K. I. Gringauz, D. L. Carpenter, V. Bassolo
The plasmasphere is the great "doughnut-shaped" zone of the magnetosphere that kinds a chilly thermal plasma cloud encircling the Earth, terminating without warning at a radial distance of 30,000 km over a pointy discontinuity often called the plasmapause. this is often the 1st monograph to explain the historic improvement of principles in regards to the plasmasphere through the pioneering researchers themselves. The monograph brings our photograph of the plasmasphere modern through featuring experimental and observational result of the prior 3 a long time, and mathematical and actual theories proposed to give an explanation for its formation. the amount may be valuable for researchers in area physics and also will attract these drawn to the historical past of technology.
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Additional info for The Earth's Plasmasphere (Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series)
There was a good deal of scatter in the daily values, but attention was 21 22 Discovery of the plasmasphere focused on effects such as an unexplained annual variation in the monthly average values, with a peak in December and minimum in June or July (Smith, 1961b), and the course of day-to-day fluctuations was not followed in detail. Some apparent anomalies were seen; J. P. Katsufrakis, a fellow student and later manager of Stanford's highly successful Antarctic field programs, found that whistlers with dispersion a factor of 3 to 4 lower than usual had been received at SE following the great magnetic storm of 11 February 1958.
5 s, significantly longer than the mere tens of milliseconds required for direct propagation to the receiver in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. An important step in the development of whistlers as a diagnostic tool was the discovery in 1956 by Helliwell, Crary, Pope and Smith (1956) of the 'nose whistler'. This whistler was recognized as a higher latitude version of the signals that had previously been recorded by Storey and others. e. / « / c e q ) . Most importantly, the whistler's nose-like form on spectrograms, with a minimum in travel time, was found to occur because of asymptotically large travel time as both zero frequency and / ceq were approached.
S. Shklovsky, V. G. Kurt and V. I. Moroz from the Sternberg Astronomical Institute, who participated in the interpretation of some experimental results pertaining to the outermost belt of charged particles' (see p. 553 in Gringauz, 1961a). The first paper by Gringauz et al. (1960a) presented the electric current measured by the ion traps, while in the second paper by Gringauz et al. (1960b) ion number densities were given and compared with the distribution in a hydrostatic equilibrium density model in order to show that the sharp drop of density at four Earth radii - the plasmapause - was really a new geophysical phenomenon.