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By Committee on the Effects of Commuting on Pilot Fatigue, Board on Human-Systems Integration, Transportation Research Board, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council

Nearly everybody studies fatigue, yet a few professions--such as aviation, drugs and the military--demand alert, targeted, speedy, and well-informed choice making and conversation with little margin for mistakes. the potential of fatigue to negatively have an effect on human functionality is easily proven. hindrance approximately this capability within the aviation context extends again a long time, with either airways and pilots agreeing that fatigue is a security quandary. a more moderen attention is whether or not and the way pilot commuting, performed in a pilot's off-duty time, may well impact fatigue in the course of flight accountability.

In summer season 2010 the U.S. Congress directed the Federal Aviation management (FAA) to replace the federal rules that govern pilot flight and responsibility time, making an allowance for contemporary study regarding sleep and fatigue. As a part of their directive, Congress additionally prompt FAA to have the nationwide Academy of Sciences behavior a learn at the results of commuting on pilot fatigue. The results of Commuting on Pilot Fatigue experiences learn and different details on the topic of the superiority and features of commuting; to the technology of sleep, fatigue, and circadian rhythms; to airline and regulatory oversight regulations; and to pilot and airline practices.

The results of Commuting on Pilot Fatigue discusses the coverage, financial, and regulatory matters that impact pilot commuting, and descriptions power subsequent steps, together with ideas for regulatory or administrative activities, or extra learn through the FAA.

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The Effects of Commuting on Pilot Fatigue 22 THE EFFECTS OF COMMUTING ON PILOT FATIGUE The nature of commuting has been changing. In one study of commuting over a 10-year period, half of the sample changed their main method of travel at least once, and one-fifth changed three or more times (Dargay and Hanly, 2003). , 2002). A common conclusion across many studies is that unpredictability leads to stress. Unpredictability can be due to unanticipated delays because of traffic volume or weather or the unreliability of services.

The sources of trained and qualified pilot candidates (primarily, universities, flight schools, the military, and smaller operators) are geographically diverse. The committee did not have information on the percentages of pilots from each source. In the United States, pilots taking entry-level positions at regional airlines Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. S. AIRLINE INDUSTRY AND PILOT COMMUTING 27 have tended to earn lower wages than pilots at mainline carriers. In many cases, pilots who join a regional carrier hope to change employment to a mainline carrier after they have accumulated additional flight experience.

In many airlines, the mix of aircraft sizes will differ across their hubs. International service, for example, is typically conducted in large aircraft, so a hub that serves as a base for international service may have a higher proportion of large aircraft than another hub that serves predominately domestic routes. Thus, even in the Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. S. AIRLINE INDUSTRY AND PILOT COMMUTING 33 absence of changes in service patterns, a pilot may change domiciles as part of a normal career progression.

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