By Jessica Elzea Kogel; et al
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Electronic edition published 2009. 5 min 500 (50/2/20) 500 (50/2/20) 280–320 Standard Regular brightness #1 fine #1 #2 #3 High brightness #1 fine #1 #2 Delaminated Fine Regular Coarse Calcined Low brightness Standard brightness *Reflectance measured at 457 nm. †Centipoise. ‡ Revolutions per minute. papermaker desires a high-gloss finish, a high-brightness, fine-particle-size product would be selected. For lightweight periodicals where fiber coverage must be accomplished with the least amount of coating possible, a delaminated product is most suitable.
The impurities are then removed by drag slats and disposed of in nearby waste impoundments. Further degritting is accomplished by vibrating screens, by hydrocyclones, or both. Degritting of Georgia kaolins is easier than with most other kaolins, because their coarse mineral content is considerably lower. Crude Clay Blending Typically, kaolins from several mines are blended in mine or plant terminal tanks to achieve the necessary quality. One of the most common reasons for blending two crude clays is to control high shear viscosity.
According to oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis, these kaolins crystallized over a temperature range of approximately 20°–35°C (Hassanipak and Eslinger 1985). Maximum confining pressure has probably never exceeded a sedimentary cover load of approximately 200 to 300 m. Additional data are required to understand the occurrence and significance of nacrite and dickite in these deposits. MINERALS THAT CONTROL RHEOLOGY Commercial-grade Georgia kaolins contain trace quantities of several 2:1 phyllosilicate minerals including smectite, mica, and illite.