Download The Origin of Individuals by Kupiec Jean-Jacques PDF

By Kupiec Jean-Jacques

Within the seventeenth century, Descartes positioned forth the metaphor of the computer to give an explanation for the functioning of dwelling beings. within the 18th century, los angeles Mettrie prolonged the metaphor to guy. The clock used to be then used because the paradigm of the computing device. within the twentieth century, this metaphor nonetheless held however the clock was once changed via a working laptop or computer. these days, the organism is seen as a robotic obeying indications emanating from a working laptop or computer software managed via genetic info. This e-book indicates that one of these perception results in contradictions not just within the concept of biology but in addition in its experimental learn application, thereby impeding its improvement. The research of this challenge is predicated at the newest experimental facts bought in molecular biology in addition to the historical past and philosophy of biology. It indicates that the laptop concept didn't achieve breaking with Aristotles finalism. The e-book provides a brand new method of organic structures according to mobile Darwinism. Genes are governed by means of probabilistic mechanisms permitting cells to distinguish stochastically. Embryo improvement isn't ruled via a determinist genetic software yet by means of typical choice taking place between phone populations contained in the organism. This conception has huge philosophical effects. guy could be a computing device yet he's a random one.

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In developing the subject later, we shall merely define deterministic and probabilistic systems in the usual way depending on whether the probability of the events is equal to 1 (deterministic) or between 0 and 1 (probabilistic). It is important to note that in this framework defined by the theory of probabilities, there is unity among natural phenomena, because there is no qualitative difference between determinism and probabilism. Determinism is the limiting case for probabilism when probability is equal to 1.

For many authors, the two aspects of probability, subjective and objective, have always coexisted (Hacking, 1975; Martin, in press). Debates on this question are fraught with difficulties and are not the subject of this book. qxd 18 12/16/2008 9:38 AM Page 18 The Origin of Individuals developed a totally probabilistic philosophy, according to which randomness is an underlying factor in the world. He speaks of a universe of propensities (Popper, 1992) and defines probability as a disposition or propensity of the phenomena themselves.

However, there is another conception of probability, known as objective or frequency probability. We are aware that certain phenomena are produced with a certain constant frequency when the same event is repeated a very great number of times, for example, the coin falls tails up in 50% of cases. It really seems that it demonstrates an intrinsic property which arises from the physical structure of the coin. According to the objective conception, probability would seem to reflect this intrinsic property of the coin.

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