By Ronald J. Fisher (auth.)
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Additional resources for The Social Psychology of Intergroup and International Conflict Resolution
An in-group development phase in which participants engaged in 10 to 18 hours of group interaction following the sensitivity training model. This interaction typically led to the development of group cohesion, norms, goals, and power structure. 2. An intergroup competition phase, which was induced by presenting the different groups in the same training workshop with a common problem of organizational functioning, such as how to best motivate subordinates, and asking them to each develop a solution.
606). The fact that a stereotype influences the initial impression of a member of a social group would not be important if interaction with this person quickly corrected any Effects of Categorizing Individuals into Groups 43 misperception that results. However, this corrective process does not occur easily. Rather, the initial stereotypic expectancies held by a perceiver tend to be confirmed by the target person's subsequent behavior in a self-fulfilling prophecy. For example, Jussim (1986) reviews evidence that teachers form expectations about each of their pupils and that these expectations can be based upon stereotypes.
Individuals strive to achieve or to maintain positive social identity, 2. tity, 3. evaluation of an individual's own group is based on social comparison with other groups, and 4. a positive social identity is based on favorable comparisons. The basic hypothesis, then, of SIT is that pressures to gain distinctiveness for and to evaluate one's own group positively through social comparisons lead to intergroup discrimination in the in-group's favor. In cases where the intergroup comparison is unfavorable, a negative social identity and dissatisfaction with one's group result.