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Additional info for Treatment and Management of Cancer in the Elderly (Basic and Clinical Oncology)
Introduction 5 4. Edwards BK, Howe HL, Ries LA, et al. S. cancer burden. Cancer 2002; 94:2766–2792. 5. Balducci L, Aapro M. Epidemiology of cancer and aging: clinical and biological implications. In: Balducci L, Extermann M, eds. Biological Basis of Geriatric Oncology. New York: Springer, 2005:1–16. 6. Anisimov W. Biological interactions of aging and carcinogenesis. In: Balducci L, Extermann M, eds. Biological Basis of Geriatric Oncology. New York: Springer, 2005:17–52. 7. Khuder SA, Mutgi AB. Effect of smoking cessation on major histologic types of lung cancer.
Others have attempted to more speciﬁcally evaluate the risk of major surgery in the elderly. In one review by Reiss of over 1000 major abdominal operations performed on patients over the age of 70, nearly half were performed for malignant conditions (17). The overall mortality rate was 14%, and ﬁve variables were found to Table 3 Validated Instruments Used with PACE Mini Mental State Examination Satariano’s Modiﬁed Index of Comorbidities Activities of Daily Living Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Geriatric Depression Scale Brief Fatigue Inventory Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status POSSUM Portsmouth POSSUM Modiﬁcation (see Appendix) Abbreviations: PACE, preoperative assessment of cancer in the elderly; POSSUM, Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity.
S. population and account for 63% of the cancer cases in the United States (2). Life expectancy is often underestimated for the elderly. 5 years. 1 years (4). Inadequate initial therapy for someone diagnosed with cancer at an older age can result in recurrence or metastases and death from cancer; outcomes that may have been preventable or avoidable with correct treatment at the outset. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of the tumors most common in the elderly: colorectal, breast, gastric, and pancreatic cancers.