Download Understanding Ageing (Developmental and Cell Biology Series) by Robin Holliday PDF

By Robin Holliday

This booklet provides a very novel method of figuring out getting older: it explains either why getting older exists in animals and experiences our present figuring out of it on the organic point. Dr. Holliday argues that a lot study should be performed at the mobile and molecular features of getting older if the beginning of age-related illnesses is to be understood. In making this argument, the writer attracts on fabric from quite a lot of disciplines, together with broad biomedical information regarding age-related ailment in people. This thought-provoking publication will entice all scholars and researchers who're drawn to getting older, whether or not they are operating within the scientific or uncomplicated examine sphere.

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The evolved anatomical and physiological design of mammals 19 In machines, the moving mechanical parts are most subject to stress and wear, and essentially the same is true of joints in vertebrates. Prolonged use leads to degenerative joint disease. Although cartilage is active in metabolism, attempts by the organism to repair constant wear and tear are in the end unsuccessful, and one end result is osteoarthritis (see Chapter 8), which is a very common age-related disease. It is quite reasonable to compare the mechanical features of joints with those of machines.

1989; Libby & Gallant 1991). However, the product of transcription is single stranded, so the equivalent of a mismatch repair process is not possible. It is not surprising, therefore, that RNA synthesis is much less accurate than DNA synthesis. There are far fewer determinations of the accuracy of RNA synthesis in vivo than there are of the accuracy of DNA synthesis, but from those that exist, it is likely that there is one error in about 104— 105 bases. More information is available about errors in the replication of viruses with RNA genomes, and it is clear that the mutation frequency is several orders of magnitude higher than mutation in DNA genomes.

In higher organisms it is known from genetic studies that the replication of DNA is at least as accurate, or perhaps more accurate, than in bacteria. It is not yet known how this accuracy is achieved, but it is a safe assumption 26 Maintenance of the adult organism that expensive proof-reading and/or mismatch repair mechanisms are essential. RNA polymerases required for transcription are also complex enzymes, and they incorporate a proof-reading step (Libby et al. 1989; Libby & Gallant 1991). However, the product of transcription is single stranded, so the equivalent of a mismatch repair process is not possible.

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