By Brian Lund
This available and unique textual content combines a scientific exam of the theories of welfare with an ancient account of the evolution of the welfare kingdom and its effect in selling social justice. It identifies the foundations governing social distribution and examines the rationales for those varied distributive rules. This publication additionally hyperlinks the theories of distribution to the particular improvement of social coverage and considers their results. country Welfare can be crucial studying for college kids of social coverage. It presents a transparent knowing of either theories of welfare and the heritage of the improvement of the British welfare nation.
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Extra info for Understanding State Welfare: Social Injustice or Social Exclusion?
According to the wagefund theory, popular at the time, only a fixed sum was available for the labouring class, and so the cost of relief must inevitably fall on the ‘independent’ labourer. Hence, according to Malthus, a labourer who marries without being able to support a family ‘may in some respects be considered as an enemy to all his fellow-labourers’ (cited in Englander, 1998: 8). The Speenhamland system attracted particular criticism. ‘Gilbert’s Act’ of 1782 sanctioned the supplementation of wages by the parish.
Until 1870 a man owned the property of his wife and had a common law duty to maintain her. A man owed this duty to maintain to the community not to his spouse and, until the 1886 Maintenance of Wives Act, a wife could not sue for maintenance in a magistrate’s court even when she left her husband (Land, 1995: 85). Elderly people had no legal rights to claim maintenance directly from their children and most Boards of Guardians appeared to have ignored their duty to claim the cost of maintaining elderly people from liable relatives (Hoppen, 1998: 317).
The National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church supervised the provision of education linked to the Church of England and its rival, the British and Foreign Schools Society, performed a similar task for dissenters. Health care was also a major arena for philanthropic activity (AbelSmith, 1964: 41). Hospitals established in earlier times were extended and new ‘specialist’ hospitals were set up to enable doctors with a particular interest to develop their expertise.