By Director of the Nobel Institute and Professor Adjunct Geir Lundestad, Olav Njolstad
On the flip of the twenty first Century, the area was once instantly gripped by way of the warfare on Terrorism via the Iraq conflict. In mirrored image, the twentieth Century used to be a interval marked by way of great technological and financial development вЂ” however it used to be additionally the main violent century in human historical past. It witnessed horrendous international wars, in addition to the conflicts through the chilly struggle. Why do wars over and over erupt between international locations, fairly the nice Powers? What are the first components that force international locations to violence вЂ” strength, status, ideology or territory? Or is it influenced through natural worry and distrust? Peering nervously on the twenty first Century, we wonder if American supremacy and globalization may help ascertain peace and balance. Or will shifts in strength with the emergence of recent fiscal super-nations result in extra tensions and conflicts during this century?
Together with 29 Peace Nobel laureates, a superb team of students accumulated in Oslo, Norway, on December 6, 2001, for the three-day Nobel Centennial Symposium to debate ''The Conflicts of the twentieth Century and the strategies for the twenty first Century''. learn this e-book for the students' candid insights and analyses, in addition to their thought-provoking perspectives at the components that resulted in conflicts within the twentieth Century and even if the twenty first Century may be a extra peaceable one. it is a infrequent вЂ” and doubtless the easiest and in simple terms вЂ” publication compilation of the hugely highbrow analyses by way of international specialists and Nobel Peace laureates at the perennial problems with warfare & Peace.
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In fresh a long time the realm has skilled the increase of so-called 'low depth conflicts'. in contrast to traditional wars those very bloody armed conflicts aren't any longer the affair of country governments and their armies. of their position seem police-like armed devices, defense prone and mystery providers, teams and enterprises of spiritual, political and social enthusiasts able to hotel to violence, 'militias', bands of mercenaries, or simply gangs of thugs, led by means of the condottiere of the twenty first century, together with militant charismatics, armed forces 'generals', 'drug barons', and 'warlords' of varied varieties.
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Does the seeming victory of liberalism as the dominant political order of the developed industrial states "end history"? Or does a new rivalry between Islam and Christianity re-play the old patterns? Edwards S. Sanford, Professor of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University, currently on a public service leave with the United Nations, serving as Special Adviser to Secretary General Kofi Annan and Assistant Secretary General. This essay reflects the author's views and not necessarily those of the United Nations.
Third was the birth of four great civilizations along the Nile, the Tigris-Euphrates, the Indus and the Yellow Rivers some 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. And fifth was the industrial revolution that began at the end of the 18th century in the United Kingdom. The industrial revolution laid the economic foundation for the emergence of modern nations. At the same time, it prepared the way for full-fledged nationalism. Stronger peoples did not hesitate to proceed on the path toward "aggressive nationalism", namely, imperialism, while weaker peoples resorted to a strategy of "defensive Dialogue and Cooperation to Achieve World Peace 21 nationalism".
Raymond Aron has identified three other types of prudential interstate peace consequent upon the structure of the international StanislavAndreski,"On the Peaceful Disposition of Military Dictatorships", Journal of Strategic Studies, vol. 3, 1980, pp. 3-10. l6 Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (New York: Penguin, 1980), I. Chap. 13, 62, p. 186. 17 An empire generally succeeds in creating an internal peace. Hegemony can create peace by overawing potential rivals. Peace through equilibrium (the multipolar classical balance of power or the bipolar "cold war") also draws upon prudential sources of peace.