Download Wettability by Erle C. Donaldson PDF

By Erle C. Donaldson

The wettability of oil reservoirs is crucial issue controlling the speed of oil restoration, offering a profound impression on petroleum creation. The oil has elevated the learn attempt on wettability yet thus far there hasn't ever been a accomplished publication at the subject. This ebook covers the entire crucial elements. severe themes contain middle maintenance, influence of wettability on relative permeability, floor forces, oil traps and pore dimension influence. decoding the concepts and examples increases the potency and creation of oil restoration, translating to more advantageous reservoir simulations and superior good creation.

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Sample text

The isolated oil globules resist further displacement and become the residual oil saturation. This is in agreement with the energy required for displacement of water and oil expressed by the capillary pressure relationships of a water-wet system. The oil displacement curve (the negative curve, Fig. 1-8) shows that spontaneous imbibition of water occurs as the capillary pressure falls from a high value at Swi to zero. At the end of imbibition, forced displacement of the oil to So,requires only a small amount of energy.

0, or when the water saturation is at Swi, clearly defined intermediate-wet cores. 9 Spontaneous Imbibition In very strongly water-wet systems, spontaneous imbibition of water from Swi may increase the water saturation all the way to So, (the imbibition capillary pressure curve, Fig. When this occurs, the USBM wettability index, I,, cannot be determined; and only the displacement-by-water ratio of the Amott wettability index can be determined. ,1997, 1999). When water is displaced to SWi the capillary pressure begins a rapid increase toward an infinite value.

1-18(1). In an oil-wet I . l P , - g 110- Core Percent no. 333 Figure 1-18 Recovery eficiency for water- to oil-wet conditions using sandstone cores. system the roles of water and oil are reversed, and injected water forms continuous fingers throughout the larger pores displacing some oil, Fig. 1-18(5). More oil is displaced in front of the water as the fingers of water grow through the matrix until water flows freely through the established channels. At this point the oil production declines rapidly while water production increases.

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