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Extra info for Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
However, these protocols provide valuable concepts such as a busy tone channel and time slot reservation which are extendable to ad hoc and sensor networks. 5 Topology Summary In short, multihop ﬂat topology or a clustered topology are more suitable to ensure scalability in ad hoc and sensor networks. Both of these topologies require more control messaging. In homogeneous networks, a multiple hop ﬂat topology is more appropriate for balancing network loads. In heterogeneous networks, a clustered topology allows the high power nodes to become cluster heads and handle most of the overhead control messaging.
To ensure that nodes keep track of time frames and slots, TDMA protocols must maintain synchronization among the nodes. In these protocols, only one station may transmit during a particular time slot. Because of their periodic nature, TDMA protocols are most suitable for real-time and deadline sensitive traﬃc. The ﬁrst proposed TDMA protocol for ad hoc networks is the Five Phase Reservation Protocol (FPRP) , in which each slot is split into an information slot and reservation slot. A sender that wants to reserve an information slot must contend for it during its reservation slot.
Longterm sensor network monitoring applications favor this tradeoﬀ, since energy consumption is the main concern in these applications. On the other hand, this tradeoﬀ may not be suitable for real-time applications, such as voice or video transfer through an ad hoc network. Another potential drawback of supporting sleep modes is the overhead power consumption for powering up and powering down a transceiver. In some cases, this overhead may exceed the power savings of supporting sleep mode. Therefore, whether it is beneﬁcial to support sleep mode depends on the speciﬁcations of particular transceivers.